Internet of Things (IoT) is an ecosystem of connected physical objects that are accessible through the internet. The ‘thing’ in IoT could be a person with a heart monitor or an automobile with built-in-sensors, i.e. objects that have been assigned an IP address and have the ability to collect and transfer data over a network without manual assistance or intervention. The embedded technology in the objects helps them to interact with internal states or the external environment, which in turn affects the decisions taken. IoT involves extending internet connectivity beyond standard devices, such as desktops, laptops, smart phones and tablets, to any range of traditionally dumb or non-internet-enabled physical devices and everyday objects. Embedded with technology, these devices can communicate and interact over the internet, and they can be remotely monitored and controlled.
An article by Ashton published in the RFID Journal in 1999 said, “If we had computers that knew everything there was to know about things - using data they gathered without any help from us - we would be able to track and count everything, and greatly reduce waste, loss and cost. We would know when things needed replacing, repairing or recalling, and whether they were fresh or past their best. We need to empower computers with their own means of gathering information, so they can see, hear and smell the world for themselves, in all its random glory.” This is precisely what IoT platforms does for us. It enables devices/objects to observe, identify and understand a situation or the surroundings without being dependent on human help.
Internet of Things can connect devices embedded in various systems to the internet. When devices/objects can represent themselves digitally, they can be controlled from anywhere. The connectivity then helps us capture more data from more places, ensuring more ways of increasing efficiency and improving safety and IoT security. IoT is a transformational force that can help companies improve performance through IoT analytics and IoT Security to deliver better results. Businesses in the utilities, oil & gas, insurance, manufacturing, transportation, infrastructure and retail sectors can reap the benefits of IoT by making more informed decisions, aided by the torrent of interactional and transactional data at their disposal.
IoT platforms can help organizations reduce cost through improved process efficiency, asset utilization and productivity. With improved tracking of devices/objects using sensors and connectivity, they can benefit from real-time insights and analytics, which would help them make smarter decisions. The growth and convergence of data, processes and things on the internet would make such connections more relevant and important, creating more opportunities for people, businesses and industries.
The most important features of IoT include artificial intelligence, connectivity, sensors, active engagement, and small device use. A brief review of these features is given below :−
IoT essentially makes virtually anything “smart”, meaning it enhances every aspect of life with the power of data collection, artificial intelligence algorithms, and networks. This can mean something as simple as enhancing your refrigerator and cabinets to detect when milk and your favourite cereal run low, and to then place an order with your preferred grocer.
New enabling technologies for networking, and specifically IoT networking, mean networks are no longer exclusively tied to major providers. Networks can exist on a much smaller and cheaper scale while still being practical. IoT creates these small networks between its system devices.
IoT loses its distinction without sensors. They act as defining instruments which transform IoT from a standard passive network of devices into an active system capable of real-world integration.
Much of today's interaction with connected technology happens through passive engagement. IoT introduces a new paradigm for active content, product, or service engagement.
Devices, as predicted, have become smaller, cheaper, and more powerful over time. IoT exploits purpose-built small devices to deliver its precision, scalability, and versatility.
The advantages of IoT span across every area of lifestyle and business. Here is a list of some of the advantages that IoT has to offer :−
Current analytics suffer from blind-spots and significant flaws in accuracy; and as noted, engagement remains passive. IoT completely transforms this to achieve richer and more effective engagement with audiences.
The same technologies and data which improve the customer experience also improve device use, and aid in more potent improvements to technology. IoT unlocks a world of critical functional and field data.
IoT makes areas of improvement clear. Current analytics give us superficial insight, but IoT provides real-world information leading to more effective management of resources.
Modern data collection suffers from its limitations and its design for passive use. IoT breaks it out of those spaces, and places it exactly where humans really want to go to analyze our world. It allows an accurate picture of everything.
IoT primarily exploits standard protocols and networking technologies. However, the major enabling technologies and protocols of IoT are RFID, NFC, low-energy Bluetooth, low-energy wireless, low-energy radio protocols, LTE-A, and Wi-Fi-Direct. These technologies support the specific networking functionality needed in an IoT system in contrast to a standard uniform network of common systems.
RFID (radio-frequency identification) and NFC (near-field communication) provide simple, low energy, and versatile options for identity and access tokens, connection bootstrapping, and payments. RFID technology employs 2-way radio transmitter-receivers to identify and track tags associated with objects.
This technology supports the low-power, long-use need of IoT function while exploiting a standard technology with native support across systems.This technology supports the low-power, long-use need of IoT function while exploiting a standard technology with native support across systems.
This technology replaces the most power hungry aspect of an IoT system. Though sensors and other elements can power down over long periods, communication links (i.e., wireless) must remain in listening mode. Low-energy wireless not only reduces consumption, but also extends the life of the device through less use.
Zigbee, Z-Wave, and Thread are radio protocols for creating low-rate private area networks. These technologies are low-power, but offer high throughput unlike many similar options. This increases the power of small local device networks without the typical costs.
LTE-A, or LTE Advanced, delivers an important upgrade to LTE technology by increasing not only its coverage, but also reducing its latency and raising its throughput. It gives IoT a tremendous power through expanding its range, with its most significant applications being vehicle, UAV, and similar communication.
Wi-Fi-Direct eliminates the need for an access point. It allows P2P (peer-to-peer) connections with the speed of Wi-Fi, but with lower latency. Wi-Fi-Direct eliminates an element of a network that often bogs it down, and it does not compromise on speed or throughput.
A number of challenges can hinder the successful deployment of an IoT system and its connected devices, including security, interoperability, power/processing capabilities, scalability and availability. Many of these can be addressed with IoT device management either by adopting standard protocols or using services offered by a vendor. Device management helps companies integrate, organize, monitor and remotely manage internet-enabled devices at scale, offering features critical to maintaining the health, connectivity and security of the IoT devices along their entire lifecycles. Such features include:
The networking, communication and connectivity protocols used with internet-enabled devices largely depend on the specific IoT application deployed. Just as there are many different IoT applications, there are many different connectivity and communications options. Communications protocols include CoAP, DTLS and MQTT, among others. Wireless protocols include IPv6, LPWAN, Zigbee, Bluetooth Low Energy, Z-Wave, RFID and NFC. Cellular, satellite, Wi-Fi and Ethernet can also be used.
Each option has its tradeoffs in terms of power consumption, range and bandwidth, all of which must be considered when choosing connected devices and protocols for a particular IoT application. To share the sensor data they collect, IoT devices connect to an IoT gateway or another edge device where data can either be analyzed locally or sent to the cloud for analysis.
The interconnection of traditionally dumb devices raises a number of questions in relation to security and privacy. As if often the case, IoT technology has moved more quickly than the mechanisms available to safeguard the devices and their users.Researchers have already demonstrated remote hacks on pacemakers and cars, and, in October 2016, a large distributed denial-of-service attack dubbed Mirai affected DNS servers on the east coast of the United States, disrupting services worldwide -- an issue traced back to hackers infiltrating networks through IoT devices, including wireless routers and connected cameras.
However, safeguarding IoT devices and the networks they connect to can be challenging due to the variety of devices and vendors, as well as the difficulty of adding security to resource-constrained devices. In the case of the Mirai botnet, the problem was traced back to the use of default passwords on the hacked devices. Strong passwords, authentication/authorization and identity management, network segmentation, encryption, and cryptography are all suggested IoT security measures.Concerned by the dangers posed by the rapidly growing IoT attack surface, the FBI released the public service announcement FBI Alert Number I-091015-PSA in September 2015, which is a document outlining the risks of IoT devices, as well as protections and defence recommendations.
In August 2017, the U.S. Senate introduced the IoT Cyber security Improvement Act, a bill addressing security issues associated with IoT devices. While it is a start, the bill only requires internet-enabled devices purchased by the federal government to meet minimum requirements, not the industry as a whole. However, it is being viewed as a starting point which, if adopted across the board, could pave the way to better IoT security industry-wide.
Gartner estimated the total number of IoT devices in use to have reached 8.4 billion in 2017, a 31% increase over 2016. And the estimations for future growth of IoT devices have been fast and furious. At the high end of the scale, Intel projected internet-enabled device penetration to grow from 2 billion in 2006 to 200 billion by 2020, which equates to nearly 26 smart devices for each human on Earth. A little more conservative, IHS Markit said the number of connected devices will be 75.4 billion in 2025 and 125 billion by 2030.
Other companies have tempered their numbers, taking smart phones, tablets and computers out of the equation. Gartner estimated 20.8 billion connected things will be in use by 2020, with IDC coming in at 28.1 billion and BI Intelligence at 24 billion. Gartner estimated the total spend on IoT devices and services at nearly $2 trillion in 2017, with IDC projecting spending to reach $772.5 billion in 2018, 14.6% more than the $674 billion it estimated to be spent in 2017, with it hitting $1 trillion in 2020 and $1.1 trillion in 2021.
The Internet of Things (IoT) has the capability to transform the world we live in; more-efficient industries, connected cars, and smarter cities are all components of the IoT equation. However, the application of technology like IoT in agriculture could have the greatest impact.
The global population is set to touch 9.6 billion by 2050. So, to feed this much population, the farming industry must embrace IoT. Against the challenges such as extreme weather conditions and rising climate change, and environmental impact resulting from intensive farming practices, the demand for more food has to be met.
Smart Agriculture based on IoT technologies will enable growers and farmers to reduce waste and enhance productivity ranging from the quantity of fertilizer utilized to the number of journeys the farm vehicles have made. So, what is smart Agriculture? Smart Agriculture is a capital-intensive and hi-tech system of growing food cleanly and sustainable for the masses. It is the application of modern ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) into agriculture.
In IoT-based smart Agriculture, a system is built for monitoring the crop field with the help of sensors (light, humidity, temperature, soil moisture, etc.) and automating the irrigation system. The farmers can monitor the field conditions from anywhere. IoT-based smart farming is highly efficient when compared with the conventional approach. The applications of IoT-based smart Agriculture not only target conventional, large farming operations, but could also be new levers to uplift other growing or common trends in agricultural like organic farming, family farming (complex or small spaces, particular cattle and/or cultures, preservation of particular or high quality varieties etc.), and enhance highly transparent farming.
Traditional farming in India now mostly managed by young people that aware with technologies. In this farm has so many problems such as unstable temperature due the weather change, the chicken need stable temperature usually farmer using stove and fan to keep temperature stale but they need to manual monitoring on it to adjust the stove and fan. another problem is feeding, chicken need to feed constantly. lastly the light problems chicken need to have constant light on. The chicken farming industry is a big part of farming. One key priority is to help farmers accurately understand and control the feed, water, and environmental data such as temperature and air quality to maximize the return on investment.
A mobile app solution that relied on manual input from farmers’ smart phones, but the results were very poor because the farmers were too busy to input the data in real time. It would reached out to ask for an IoT solution that could satisfy the need for automatic, real-time remote monitoring and environmental control.
The IoT is all about making people’s lives easier. Store-operated smart phone apps, contactless checkout, smart shelves, and other incoming technologies will improve the overall shopping experience and streamline retail logistics. The advent of Internet of Things has ushered in a new era for the Retail Industry. The IoT movement offers retailers opportunities in critical areas: Driving Smarter Operations, Transforming Customer Experiences, Empowering employees and creating new channels and revenue streams. While the IoT may seem like science fiction, it is becoming reality faster than most of us can comprehend. Through this post, we wish to analyze the impact which IoT has on retail management and how it can prove to be the disruptive differentiator in an already competitive retail environment.
Shopping in this new era is a consumer-driven activity, and this phenomenon is challenging the retail store environment in ways that were unseen previously. The consumers today have mobile technology and data at their fingertips and are more aware and knowledgeable. These consumers are, therefore demanding a shopping experience, which is customized according to their individual needs.
The internet of things has a myriad of applications in healthcare that benefit patients, families and physicians alike. Some hospitals are using the internet of things in healthcare to keep the tiniest patients safe and healthy, while others are using the technology to keep track of inventory. These examples merely scrape the surface of the potential of healthcare IoT.
The usage of the IoT in healthcare (the industry, personal healthcare and healthcare payment applications) has sharply increased across various specific Internet of Things use cases. At the same time we see how other healthcare IoT use cases are picking up speed and the connected healthcare reality is accelerating, even if hurdles remain. There are already countless applications for the internet of things in healthcare, but the technology is still evolving. While one of the challenges of healthcare IoT is how to manage all of the data it collects, the future of IoT will depend on the ability of healthcare organizations to turn that data into meaningful insights. This section will also look at IoT applications that are beginning to emerge.
Internet of things is a blessing of modern science which is based on the idea of connecting every device with each other via internet, thus making the entire system smarter, reliable and efficient. Over the last few years there has been a significant change in people’s lifestyle due to the introduction of various IoT gadgets. This however is just a beginning and the future of IoT seems vast and seemingly unimaginable.
Internet of Things technology contribution in the improving the standard of living and how it will continue to make our lives easier in the upcoming years.
This is just a glimpse of what will happen in the next few years. Internet of Things technology brings Secured lifestyle. With the world getting violent and insensible with each passing day, security is always a major concern these days not only for people living in metros but also for the families in small town. However Internet of things has a solution to this problem by making home security devices smarter and responsive.
The Internet of Things (IoT) is set to enable these changes and drive us into the next age of efficiency. Tasks that were once time-consuming and perhaps dangerous, or that required precise calculations, will be turned over to our devices. The IoT will hit all aspects of our lives, and transportation is no exception. From the average citizen’s car to trucks carrying heavy loads, standards will change, and the world along with it. The rise of self-driving cars, controlled through Wi-Fi, smart phones, and technology smartly crafted by the manufacturers, is close at hand. Smart car technology will be most highly disruptive around the middle of the century, but eventually the world will adapt and reap the benefits that can only come from modernizing and improving the technology.
The IIoT is part of a larger concept known as the Internet of Things (IoT). The IoT is a network of intelligent computers, devices, and objects that collect and share huge amounts of data. The collected data is sent to a central Cloud-based service where it is aggregated with other data and then shared with end users in a helpful way. The IoT will increase automation in homes, schools, stores, and in many industries. The application of the IoT to the manufacturing industry is called the IIoT (or Industrial Internet or Industry 4.0). The IIoT will revolutionize manufacturing by enabling the acquisition and accessibility of far greater amounts of data, at far greater speeds, and far more efficiently than before.
Cities around the world are getting “smarter” everyday through the implementation of Internet of Things (IoT) devices. “What exactly does it mean for a city to get smarter?” you ask. According to IoT, “Smart cities are communities that are building infrastructure to continuously improve the collection, aggregation and use of data to improve the lives of their residents by harnessing the growing data revolution, low-cost sensors and research collaborations, and doing so securely to protect public safety and individual privacy.” In practical terms, this means that cities are using low-cost sensors and Wi-Fi enabled smart devices to “talk” to people and cities. These IoT devices provide local leaders with real-time data about community needs, and city managers use this information to create transformational solutions to make crowded cities more manageable and more affordable for everyone.